Statistical Computing, 36-350

Friday September 30, 2016

- Each function has its own environment
- Names here override names in the global environment
- Internal environment starts with the named arguments
- Assignments inside the function only change the internal environment
- Names undefined in the function are looked for in the global environment

```
x = 7
y = c("A","C","G","T","U")
adder = function(y) { x = x+y; x }
adder(1)
```

`## [1] 8`

`x`

`## [1] 7`

`y`

`## [1] "A" "C" "G" "T" "U"`

```
circle.area = function(r) { pi*r^2 }
circle.area(1:3)
```

`## [1] 3.141593 12.566371 28.274334`

```
true.pi = pi
pi = 3 # Valid in 1800s Indiana
circle.area(1:3)
```

`## [1] 3 12 27`

```
pi = true.pi # Restore sanity
circle.area(1:3)
```

`## [1] 3.141593 12.566371 28.274334`

- Generally OK for built-in constants like
`pi`

,`letters`

,`month.names`

, etc. - Generally not OK for user-defined variables outside of the function
- For the latter, pass these as input arguments to your function

- Start with the big-picture view of the task
- Break the task into a few big parts
- Figure out how to fit the parts together
- Repeat this for each part

You can write top-level code, right away, for your function’s design:

```
# Not actual code
big.job = function(lots.of.arguments) {
first.result = first.step(some.of.the.args)
second.result = second.step(first.result, more.of.the.args)
final.result = third.step(second.result, rest.of.the.args)
return(final.result)
}
```

After you write down your design, go ahead and write the sub-functions (here `first.step()`

, `second.step()`

, `third.step()`

). The process may be iterative, in that you may write these sub-functions, then go back and change the design a bit, etc.

Suppose that we wanted to (were instructed to) write a function that takes a vector of strings (each of which is a URL), builds a document-term matrix from these documents, computes correlations, and as a side effect (if asked): prints out a summary to the console.

Sounds complicated! But let’s write a code sketch:

```
compare.docs = function(str.urls, split="[[:space:]]|[[:punct:]]",
tolower=TRUE, keep.numbers=FALSE, print.summary=TRUE) {
# Compute the document-term matrix
dt.mat = get.dt.mat(str.urls, split, tolower, keep.numbers)
# Compute correlations
cor.mat = cor(t(dt.mat))
# Print a summary, if we're asked to
if (print.summary) print.dt.mat(dt.mat)
# Return a list with document-term matrix and correlations
return(list(dt.mat=dt.mat, cor.mat=cor.mat))
}
```

That wasn’t too bad, and now we know exactly what to work on next! More code sketching:

```
get.dt.mat = function(str.urls, split="[[:space:]]|[[:punct:]]",
tolower=TRUE, keep.numbers=FALSE) {
# First, compute all the individual word tables
wordtabs = get.wordtabs(str.urls, split, tolower, keep.numbers)
# Then, build the document-term matrix from these, and return it
return(dt.mat.from.wordtabs(wordtabs))
}
```

Luckily, we’ve already written `get.wordtabs()`

; we need to write `dt.mat.from.wordtabs()`

. Also need to sketch/write `print.dt.mat()`